How Exercise Affects Male Fertility: Dos and Don’ts for Optimal Results

Exercise is widely recognized as an essential component of maintaining overall health and wellbeing. However, when it comes to male fertility, striking the right balance between physical activity and rest is crucial.

This article will explore the impact of exercise on male fertility and provide practical dos and don’ts for achieving optimal results.

The Relationship Between Exercise and Male Fertility

Exercise can have both positive and negative effects on male fertility, depending on factors such as the intensity, duration, and type of physical activity. Some of the ways in which exercise may influence male fertility include:

1. Hormone Regulation

Moderate exercise can help regulate hormone levels, including testosterone, which plays a vital role in sperm production and overall male fertility. However, excessive exercise or overtraining can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels, potentially impacting fertility.

2. Weight Management

Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for optimal fertility. Exercise can help control weight and reduce the risk of obesity, which has been linked to lower sperm count and impaired sperm function.

3. Stress Reduction

Physical activity can help reduce stress, which can negatively impact fertility. Exercise may improve mood, decrease anxiety, and promote overall mental wellbeing, contributing to better reproductive health.

4. Oxidative Stress and Sperm Quality

Moderate exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and improve sperm quality. However, excessive exercise can increase oxidative stress, potentially damaging sperm cells and impairing fertility.

Dos and Don’ts for Optimal Results

To maximize the benefits of exercise for male fertility, consider these dos and don’ts:

1. Do: Engage in Moderate Exercise

Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine. Activities such as brisk walking, swimming, and cycling can provide a good balance between cardiovascular benefits and maintaining fertility.

2. Don’t: Overtrain or Participate in Extreme Endurance Exercises

Overtraining and extreme endurance exercises can negatively impact fertility by reducing testosterone levels and increasing oxidative stress. Limit high-intensity workouts and allow for adequate rest and recovery to prevent potential fertility issues.

3. Do: Incorporate Strength Training

Strength training can help maintain healthy testosterone levels and support overall health. Include resistance exercises for major muscle groups, such as squats, lunges, and bench presses, two to three times per week.

4. Don’t: Neglect Flexibility and Balance Exercises

Incorporate flexibility and balance exercises, such as yoga and Pilates, to reduce stress and promote overall wellbeing

5. Do: Listen to Your Body

Pay attention to your body’s signals and adjust your exercise routine accordingly. If you experience excessive fatigue, prolonged soreness, or decreased performance, consider reducing the intensity or duration of your workouts to prevent overtraining and potential fertility issues.

6. Don’t: Use Anabolic Steroids or Performance-Enhancing Drugs

Anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs can significantly decrease sperm production and impair fertility. Avoid using these substances and focus on a balanced exercise program and proper nutrition for optimal results.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How soon can exercise impact male fertility?

The effects of exercise on male fertility can vary depending on factors such as the individual’s fitness level, type of exercise, and overall health. However, consistent changes in exercise habits may start to impact fertility within a few months. Keep in mind that sperm production takes approximately 74 days, so it may take time for improvements to become noticeable.

Can certain types of exercise harm male fertility?

While moderate exercise is generally beneficial for fertility, excessive high-intensity or endurance training can have negative effects on male reproductive health. Overtraining can lead to decreased testosterone levels and increased oxidative stress, which can impair sperm function and overall fertility.

Is it safe to exercise during fertility treatments or while trying to conceive?

Moderate exercise is generally safe and beneficial during fertility treatments or while trying to conceive. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider or fertility specialist before making significant changes to your exercise routine, as individual circumstances may vary.


Exercise can play an essential role in promoting male fertility when approached with balance and moderation. By engaging in regular moderate exercise, incorporating strength training, and avoiding overtraining or the use of performance-enhancing drugs, men can support their reproductive health and increase their chances of conception. As with any lifestyle change, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before making significant adjustments to your exercise routine.

References & Sources

Gaskins, A. J., Mendiola, J., Afeiche, M., Jørgensen, N., Swan, S. H., & Chavarro, J. E. (2015). Physical activity and television watching in relation to semen quality in young men. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(4), 265-270.

Hajizadeh Maleki, B., Tartibian, B., & Vaamonde, D. (2017). The effects of three months of aerobic exercise on sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, and testicular Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in rats. Reproduction, 153(4), 409-420.

Vaamonde, D., Da Silva-Grigoletto, M. E., García-Manso, J. M., Barrera, N., & Vaamonde-Lemos, R. (2009). Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(4), 661-672.